JMIR-Health-Related Effects Reported by Electronic Cigarette Users in Online Forums | Hua

By | April 17, 2018


‘);
}
//]]>

Table 1.
Demographics of forum users.
View this table

Health Effect-System Associations

A total of 388 different symptoms were reported by e-cigarette users on the Electronic Cigarette Forum (). Most health effects were broadly distributed across 12 different categories. These categories included 10 organ systems (eg, respiratory, neurological) and two anatomical regions (chest and mouth/throat), which we collectively refer to as systems. Respiratory, mouth/throat, neurological, and sensory had the most symptoms associated with them. Mouth and throat had more negative symptoms than any other group. A significant number of health effects appeared in the digestive, muscular/skeletal, and integumentary systems, while the urogenital, immune, and endocrinological systems had relatively few symptoms. Seventeen reported symptoms were not associated with a system. (The legend for Figure 1 is as follows: IMPVD = improved; Elim = eliminated; REC = recurring; PRSRT = persistent; UNS = unspecified; SENS = sensation; OCD = obsessive compulsive disorder; COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COMP = complications; PO = post-operative; w/ = with.)

Of the reported effects, 318 were negative, 69 were positive, and one was neutral (). All systems had both positive and negative symptoms, except for urogenital, which had only negative effects. Negative symptoms were often described as persistent, worsened, or increasing. In contrast, positive effects were often described as decreased, improved, or eliminated. Negative and positive effects were sometimes opposites, eg, improved cough and worsened cough were reported by different individuals. Some symptoms (17) were not assigned to a category. Negative symptoms in this group included “swelling” and “dehydration”, while positive included “improved stamina” and “improved overall health”. Some symptoms occurred during e-cigarette use, such as “metal taste in mouth”, while others occurred after use, such as “choking after use”. Of the symptoms not associated with a system, the most frequently reported were: no symptoms [], improved exercise endurance (6), and dehydration (7).

Symptom Frequency

To analyze the frequency of reports for various symptoms, the data in were condensed by combining all health effects into structural or physiological groups. For example, red tongue, swollen tongue, and bumps on tongue were all combined into the structural group “tongue”, and constipation, indigestion, and frequent bowel movements were combined into the physiological group “intestine/digestion”. The frequency of positive and negative reports in each structural/physiological group was graphed for each system (). In , n=the total number of health effects (positive and negative) for each system, and data in each column are plotted as a percentage of the total number of effects reported for each system. Urogenital and endocrinological data are not shown because there were few reports in these categories. For each system in , the negative effects outnumbered the positive effects. In most graphs, there were one or two negative structural/physiological groups that were dominant. For example, the bronchi/lungs were frequently affected in “respiratory”, and sight was frequently affected in “sensory”. Some structural/physiological groups had only negative effects, such as acne in “integumentary”, tongue in “mouth and throat”, and aches/pain in “muscular/skeletal”. In respiratory, digestive, sensory, and immune, each condensed group had both positive and negative symptoms. One physiological group, smell in “sensory”, had only positive reports. The neurological system had the largest number of different groups, which included headaches, dizziness, and temperature regulation.

‘);
}
//]]>

Figure 2. Frequency of positive and negative symptoms for 10 systems.
View this figure

Interactomes

Electronic Cigarette Forum data were further analyzed by creating an interactome showing the relationship between the negative symptoms reported by each individual and the systems with which they interacted (). Individuals in the interactome are represented by small numbered circles, while systems appear as rectangular purple nodes. Those reporting symptom(s) for one system (n=276, red circles) are generally at the outer edges of the interactome. Individuals reporting two systems (n=85, teal circles) are grouped more toward the center of the interactome or between adjacent systems with which they interact. Those reporting health effects in three (n=34, purple circles), four (n=12, pink circles), five (n=5, light blue circles), or six (n=2, green circles) systems are grouped in the interior of the interactome.

For most users, a single system was affected. However, 34% of the individuals had negative effects in more than one system. For individuals reporting effects in two systems, clear interactions were seen between: mouth/throat and respiratory; respiratory and chest; mouth/throat and sensory; sensory and neurological; mouth/throat and neurological; neurological and respiratory; digestive and neurological, and neurological and circulatory. Although a number of individuals reported symptoms in immune, there was no clear interaction between immune and other systems. There was relatively little interaction with urogenital and no interaction with endocrinological.

The corresponding positive interactome for the Electronic Cigarette Forum had relatively few users (n=58) (). Two-way interactions were seen mainly between respiratory and sensory, respiratory and mouth/throat, and respiratory and chest. For most users, a single system was affected, although 2 users reported positive effects in as many as four different systems.

The color-coding in shows the number of systems affected for each user (red = users reporting symptom(s) for one system; teal = users reporting symptom(s) for two systems; purple = users reporting symptom(s) for three systems; pink = users reporting symptom(s) for four systems).

‘);
}
//]]>

Figure 4. Positive interactome for the Electronic Cigarette Forum.
View this figure

Time Frame

In the Electronic Cigarette Forum, 66 users reported a time frame for the appearance of their symptoms. Forty-seven users stated that symptoms occurred 1 week or less after use began. The remaining 19 reported that symptoms occurred more than 1 week after use began.

Signs

Some e-cigarette users reported diagnoses (signs) made by physicians or dentists (). Most signs occurred in the circulatory system, respiratory system, or mouth/throat. Several negative health effects that did not appear in the self-reported data were diagnosed by physicians and dentists, such as periodontitis, rhinitis, parethesia, cataract development, and anemia. Some positive health effects that were diagnosed but did not appear in user-reported symptoms () were whiter teeth, improved gum health, and improved spirometry test results.

Other Forums

Interactomes for the Vapor Talk () and Vapers Forums () show the relationship between users (small circles), negative symptoms (light pink diamonds) and positive symptoms (light green diamonds), and systems (purple rectangles). Data for these smaller forums were similar to the Electronic Cigarette Forum. In both small forums, more negative than positive symptoms were posted, and most effects were reported for “respiratory”, “mouth/throat”, and “neurological”. Most users reported only one effect that generally appeared near the outside edge of the interactome. Those reporting two and or more effects are grouped toward the center of the interactome. There were not enough individuals in the two smaller forums to observe interactions. Very few individuals in the two smaller forums reported signs (). The color-coding in and shows the number of systems affected for each user (red circles = users reporting symptom(s) for one system; teal circles = users reporting symptom(s) for two systems; purple circles = users reporting symptom(s) for three systems; light blue = users reporting symptom(s) for five systems).

‘);
}
//]]>

Figure 6. Interactome for Vapor Talk.
View this figure

Discussion

Information on the health effects related to e-cigarette use is important to users, health professionals, and regulatory agencies. In this study, we have taken an infodemiological approach (ie, used information on the Internet for public health research) [] to evaluate the health effects reported by e-cigarette users. Our data, while preliminary, show that a broad spectrum of positive and negative symptoms attributed to e-cigarette use has been self-reported in online forums. Our data are in general agreement with prior studies and extend earlier work by demonstrating the breadth of e-cigarette related health effects, determining the frequency of occurrence of specific effects for 12 systems, and demonstrating interactions between systems.

Two prior studies deal with the effects of e-cigarette use on blood pressure and heart rate. When 32 participants consumed one e-cigarette cartridge/day for 4 weeks, no abnormal changes in blood pressure were observed []. In contrast, we found, based on a larger number of participants, that blood pressure changes were reported by 3.5% of e-cigarette users (5 individuals with symptoms and 12 individuals with signs), and increased blood pressure was the sign most frequently diagnosed in e-cigarette users by physicians (n=9). Increased heart rate was observed in a study in which increased levels of plasma nicotine were verified during e-cigarette use []. This agrees with our study in which some e-cigarette users reported changes in heart rate and palpitations. Although we found that e-cigarette users reported relatively few different symptoms for the circulatory system, some, such as increased blood pressure, may not be perceived by the user and could have significant health impacts if left untreated.

Several prior health-related studies on e-cigarettes deal with the respiratory system and mouth/throat. In our study, these systems had the largest number of different symptoms associated with them. In an Internet survey of e-cigarette users, positive effects were reported to be improved breathing/respiration, less coughing, fewer sore throats, improved fitness, and reduced bad breath [], similar to the main positive effects found in our study. We found additional positive effects such as “improved COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]”, “asthma relief”, and “cleared bronchitis”. However for most positive effects, there were corresponding negative reports, such as “developed cough” or “cough worsened”, suggesting that individual responses to e-cigarette aerosol can vary and be opposite. In a study of smoking reduction, mouth and throat irritation as well as dry cough were common, but diminished by 24 weeks []. These symptoms were reported in our study with high frequency. We found that some users had immediate reaction to e-cigarettes, such as coughing or choking, or same-day reaction (insomnia), while others reported that symptoms appeared at least a week after beginning e-cigarette use. When respiratory physiology was monitored following 5 minutes of ad libitum use of e-cigarettes by healthy non-smokers, a significant decrease in exhaled nitric oxide and an increase in pulmonary resistance were observed, similar to effects seen during use of conventional cigarettes [,]. We did find reports of “tightening of the lungs” and “difficulty breathing”, which suggest increased pulmonary resistance. In all the above studies, the reported health effects are short term.

In general, the negative short-term effects reported by e-cigarette users appear relatively minor compared to more serious long-term conditions (eg, cancer and stroke) that occur in conventional smokers []. Since some symptoms associated with e-cigarette use appear to be minor, such as sneezing and dry skin, and may not impact overall health and life style, e-cigarette users may consider these effects to be insignificant compared to the health consequences of conventional smoking. Other effects correlated with e-cigarette use may forewarn of significant health problems. For example, dizziness could have a major impact on a user’s life style if it were serious enough to prevent driving or working, as was reported to us by an e-cigarette user. Users need to be aware that e-cigarettes are not free of health consequences and that numerous negative effects have been reported. For individuals who do not smoke conventional cigarettes and who do not currently use e-cigarettes, knowledge of these health effects may be important in helping them decide if they wish to begin e-cigarette use.

Many e-cigarette users reported multiple positive or negative symptoms that often affected more than one system, as shown in and . The negative interactome for the Electronic Cigarette Forum demonstrated that when multiple systems are affected in individual e-cigarette users, there is often interaction between systems, such as respiratory and chest, respiratory and mouth/throat, and digestive and neurological. This information may be useful to physicians treating patients who are using e-cigarettes and/or have a prior history of smoking. The data may also be used to help diagnose health problems in patients for whom smoking/e-cigarette history is not known. Although the positive interactome for the Electronic Cigarette Forum had fewer users, interactions between systems were similar to those observed in the negative interactome.

In the negative Electronic Cigarette Forum interactome, many symptoms involved the neurological and sensory systems, and these may have been caused by an overdose or withdrawal of nicotine, which activates nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the brain []. Some symptoms reported by e-cigarette users, such as vomiting, nausea, changes in heart rhythm, confusion, dizziness, and fatigue, would be consistent with a nicotine overdose []. Because nicotine can be added to cartomizers/cartridges, the potential to overdose exists. It is also possible that some reported symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, which are characteristic of nicotine withdrawal [], were caused by insufficient delivery of nicotine to some e-cigarette users. As previously shown, inexperienced users of e-cigarettes may not receive adequate levels of nicotine [].

While our study demonstrates the value of an infodemiological approach, it has several limitations. The online forums may be biased toward negative reporting, and the positive effects are probably under-reported in our analysis. In the current study, users posted effects that they observed after starting e-cigarette use and that they therefore attribute the effects to e-cigarettes. However, these results do not take into account past smoking and lifestyle history, pre-existing conditions, or other medical problems the users may have had before e-cigarette use began, any of which may have affected or even aggravated their response to e-cigarette aerosol. In addition, user posts cannot be validated, and it is possible that inaccurate information appears in the forums. Future work should be undertaken using methods that would acquire additional medical and lifestyle history of each user and that draw participants from a random sample of e-cigarette users.

Additionally, our data do not address the effects that e-cigarette use may have on prenatal development, a period in the human life cycle that is particularly sensitive to environmental chemicals [,]. Our recent study found that some e-cigarette refill fluids were highly toxic to human embryonic stem cells [], indicating the need for further work in this area.

Our data will be helpful to e-cigarette users who may experience similar effects, to health care professionals advising individuals on e-cigarette usage, and to policy makers and legislators who regulate sales, use, and marketing of e-cigarettes. Interactome data may help health care workers identify problems caused by e-cigarette use, eg, problems with the respiratory system are often linked to problems with the neurological system. While it can be argued that e-cigarettes are safer than conventional tobacco-burning products, the data in this study demonstrate that e-cigarette users are not free of negative health effects.

Conclusions

This study provides a preliminary synopsis of the short-term health effects related to e-cigarette use as reported in online forums. Effects occurred most often in the respiratory and neurological systems and in the mouth and throat with a total of 12 systems being affected. Within each system, certain categories of health related-effects were dominant, such as throat problems and headache. As more individuals adopt e-cigarettes and use them for longer periods of time, additional positive and negative effects on human health will likely be reported. This study is a step in understanding these issues; however, it will be many years before the long-term health consequences of e-cigarette use are known.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of California grant No. 20XT-0118, University of California, Riverside, Medical Scholar’s Summer Research Program (MSSRP), Chancellor’s Research Fellowship, and the Academic Senate. We are grateful to Vinay Seshachellam and Taylor Gipson for their help saving the data and to all members of the lab for their suggestions on the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.


Edited by G Eysenbach; submitted 25.08.12; peer-reviewed by J Brigham; comments to author 08.10.12; revised version received 14.11.12; accepted 05.02.13; published 08.04.13

©My Hua, Mina Alfi, Prue Talbot. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 08.04.2013.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on http://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.

Journal of Medical Internet Research
ISSN 1438-8871

Copyright © 2018 JMIR Publications

NEW: Help Desk Now Available



Source link

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *